Maven is simultaneously one of the most useful and most frustrating tools that I have ever used. As long as you stay within its “standard build process,” you can do some amazing things with very little configuration. But if you step off that standard, even in a small way, you'll end up in a world of pain. If you're lucky, a short session of Googling will suffice; if unlucky, you'll need to read plugin source code.
In my case, all I wanted to do was create a separate directory of integration tests, and allow them to be invoked from the command line.* I thought that I could get away with just redefining a system property:
mvn -Dproject.build.testSourceDirectory=src/itest/java test
No luck: Maven used its default directory (confirmed with the
-X command-line option). After some Googling, which included a bunch of Maven bug reports, I learned that some plugins load system properties before they load the properties defined in the POM — which I think misses the whole point of command-line defines.
My next step was to take a closer look at Surefire's configuration options in the hope that I could override there. And
testSourceDirectory looked like it would work, but its datatype is
File, and Maven doesn't try to convert non-String properties.
Some more Googling led me to build profiles. This seemed promising: I could create a named profile, and within it set the test directory to whatever I wanted. There was only one problem: profiles can't override the POM's build directories. If this post ever drops into the hands of the Maven team, I'd really like to know the reasoning behind that decision.**
OK, but perhaps I could use a profile to pass my directory directly to the Surefire plugin? This seemed promising, and when I first tried it, even appeared to work (but it turned out that I'd accidentally put source files under the wrong directory tree). Back to the documentation, and I realized that tests are compiled by the compiler plugin, not the Surefire plugin, and the compiler plugin doesn't have any directory config. This is when I downloaded the Surefire plugin code, and grepped for
testSourceDirectory. It appears to be used only for TestNG; too bad I'm using JUnit.
In the end, I gave up on using a command-line override to run integration tests. I realized that Maven really, really wanted me to have a single test directory, used for all phases of the build. But to split this directory into unit and integration phases meant I would have to use a naming convention and include/exclude filters. I still rejected this: I have no desire for “big ball of mud” source trees.
Instead I created a sub-project for the integration tests. Of course, it wasn't a true sub-project: Maven is very particular about parent-child relationships. Instead, I just created an "itest" directory within my main project directory, and gave it its own POM; Maven's transitive dependency mechanism really helped here. It took about 10 minutes, versus the 4+ hours I'd spent trying to override the test directory. And it didn't affect the mainline build; for once I was happy that Maven ignores things that it doesn't expect.
** Update (7-Apr-10): last night I attended a presentation by Jason van Zyl, creator of Maven and founder of Sonatype. And his answer to why Maven 2 doesn't allow profiles to override all build elements was that they didn't see a use case at the time: integration tests are outside of the normal build flow — except that now they're finding a need to do just that when building the Hudson build-management tool. For myself, I've come to accept sub-projects as the simplest solution.